Fossil fuel emissions

Fossil Fuel Emissions

Emissions data for years 2017 and 2018 are preliminary.

Cite as: Gilfillan et al. (2019), UNFCCC (2019), BP (2019).

CDIAC: Gilfillan, D., Marland, G., Boden, T., and R. Andres, 2019. Global, Regional, and National Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions. Available at:, last access: 27 September 2019.

UNFCCC, 2019. National Inventory Submissions 2019. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Available at:; last accessed June 2019.

BP, 2019. Statistical Review of World Energy. Available at: last access June 2019.


The 1959-2016 estimates for fossil fuels and industry are from Gilfillan et al. (2019).

We modify these data as follows:

  • Where available (42 countries) the national estimates reported to the UNFCCC (2019) during 1990-2017 are used instead of CDIAC data.
  • Emissions for Norway during 1973–1989 are overwritten using superior data derived from local sources.
  • Data from the 2017 edition of CDIAC are used for China and Saudi Arabia.
  • Cement emissions are taken from Andrew (2019).

The 2017 and 2018 estimates (or just 2018 where UNFCCC data are available) are preliminary and based on energy statistics published by BP (2019).


Cement emissions

Cite as Andrew, R., 2019. Global CO2 emissions from cement production, 1928–2018. Earth System Science Data, 11(4), 1675-1710, DOI: 10.5194/essd-11-1675-2019. Available at:


Consumption-based Fossil Fuel Emissions

Cite as: Updated from Peters et al. (2011) and Peters et al. (2012)

Peters, GP, Minx, JC, Weber L, and Edenhofer, O. 2011. Growth in emission transfers via international trade from 1990 to 2008. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA. DOI:10.1073/pnas.1006388108. Available at:

For an explanation of issues around consumption emissions, see:

Peters, GP, Davis, SJ and Andrew, R. 2012. A synthesis of carbon in international trade. Biogeosciences, 9, 3247-3276. DOI: 10.5194/bg-9-3247-2012. Available at:

The use of data is conditional on citing the original data sources.


Land-Use Change Emissions

Cite as: Updated from Houghton and Nassikas (2017), Hansis et al. (2015).

Houghton, R. A. and Nassikas, A. A. (2017), Global and regional fluxes of carbon from land use and land cover change 1850-2015, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 31(3), 456–472, DOI:10.1002/2016gb005546 Available at:

Hansis, E., Davis, S.J., Pongratz, J., 2015. Relevance of methodological choices for accounting of land use change carbon fluxes. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 2014GB004997. DOI: 10.1002/2014GB004997. Available at:

The use of data is conditional on citing the original data sources. Data for years 2017 and 2018 are preliminary.


Gross Domestic Product

GDP: IEA/OECD 2018. CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion Highlights. Paris. Available at:



UN, 2019. World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision. United Nations Population Division. Available at:


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